The Red River delta (RRD) ends its Spring season for rice crop in dry weather which is favourable to farmers for harvest work and product post processing. The three early birds include Ha Noi, Ha Nam and Hung Yen provinces, whereas Ha Noi – Ha Nam complete the crop cut about 2 weeks in advance, followed by Hung Yen province, which is also 7 to 10 days earlier than the rest of the region.

From the very beginning of the season, the irrigation task has been well planned by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), in closed collaboration with Vietnam Electricity company (EVN). Three water discharges on 10 Jan 2017, 23 Jan 2017 and 6 Feb 2017 provided well support to the whole region for timely land preparation.

Favorable weather from early January with average temperature from 18-25 degrees ensures the planting on schedule. The Spring 2017 crop does not incounter extreme coldness across the Red River Delta, hence farmers can avoid replantation of the affected plots that slow down the cultivation progress.

Rice field bservations in the Red River delta in early March 2017

In favourable conditions, end season yield estimation for Spring 2017 shows higher value than the Spring last year. Compared to 6.3 tons/ha in average of Spring 2016 yield, this season’s yield is 300 kg higher, gaining a total of 2.87 million tons of product in the region.

Information reported in this bulletin has been generated using MAPscape-RICE, Oryza and data acquired by Sentinel-1A/1B (owned by EU and developed & operated by ESA). Background map ©OpenStreetMap contributors.

The end-season bulletin for rice monitoring in the Mekong delta can be accessed via following links:

English version              

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Switzerland has funded pilot phase (2012-2015) and the scale up phase (2015-2017) the RIICE project in Vietnam as part of its global support to several rice producing countries. The concept of the project is to use high quality, free of charge satellite data that has been recently made available internationally for the monitoring of rice production, natural disasters (notebly floods and droughts). After the pilot phase in 2 provinces, the concept has been proved to work perfectly in providing a cost-effective way of providing accurate, unbiased and timely data. In the scale up phase, the project is implemented in 8 provinces in the Red river Delta and 2 other ones in the Mekong Delta.

MARD expreesed its willingness to continue the project and expand to cover other major rice producing provinces as well.

RIICE project workshop. © FDFA

When the partners from academia, ministry and Swiss Embassy met on May 26, 2017 to conclude a 5-year project for a satellite-based rice information system for Vietnam, a Sentinel satellite had just passed over the Red River and Mekong deltas to take pictures of the rice growth status. What started as the RIICE project (Remote sensing-based Information and Insurance for Crops in Emerging Economies) has become a mature monitoring system about to be used in crop insurance and other applications.

The small donor’s investment has generated big impact, a participant to the meeting noted.

RIICE parties use the software Mapscape developed by sarmap, a Swiss company, to process satellite data and produce rice area map, phenological maps (showing rice growth stages). The benefit of this is to take advantage of high quality satellite imagery that are provided free of charge. In the past, the high cost of satellite data used to be one of the biggest challenges for a wide-spread use.

This data and other data such as weather and cultivation practice are then fed into ORYZA, a crop model developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to produce yield data. The model has been developed and continuously improved over the last 20 years. Another advantage is that most rice varieties grown in Vietnam are in one or another way provided by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).

This gives RIICE-generated data a very high level of accuracy.

Over the last 2 years RIICE has monitored 8 provinces in the Red River Delta and 2 provinces in the Mekong Delta covering an area of 1.9 million ha, including an average 860,000 ha rice area each season. In the summer-autumn season of 2016 RIICE started to monitor the other 11 provinces in the Mekong Delta covering the 2 biggest rice-producing regions of Vietnam bringing the monitored area to 5.9 million ha, including 1.9 million ha of rice area.

The results are much appreciated by various stakeholders, including various departments under Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, provincial departments of agriculture and rural development, the General Statistical Office, the Directorate for National Reserves, etc. Lastly, the project partners—the National Institute for Agriculture Planning and Projection, and Can Tho University—have acquired the technical skills to operate the project independently.

The insurance industry, notably Bao Minh, Bao Viet and Swiss Re have undertaken a strict technical review and concluded that RIICE-generated data is good enough for using as input for insurance product pricing and loss assessment.

Beside Vietnam, RIICE is implemented in a few other countries in the regions also, including Cambodia, Thailand, and India. Vietnam is the only country where RIICE can produce data at commune level while keeping the accuracy level at the region 92-94%, a very high standard in the industry.

All speakers at the workshop on May 26, 2017 highly appreciated the result of the project citing the efficient use of donor’s funding amongst others, and they all called for the continuation of the project considering its considerable impact. Switzerland also expressed its willingness to continue supporting the project with some funding once the government takes over the ownership.

Source: SDC, 26 May 2017

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RIICE - May 2017. A remarkable event of RIICE program is recorded by the Final Workshop on Rice Monitoring, dated 26 May 2017 in Hanoi, Vietnam. After two years in implementation, RIICE Vietnam has achieved great success in nation-wide monitoring rice cultivation.

Participation to the workshop are delegations from several national and international organizations, including:

  • Department of Cooperatives and Rural Development
  • VinaRe
  • Can Tho University
  • Bao Viet Insurance
  • International Cooperation Department
  • Insurance Service Agency (MoF)
  • University of Valladolid
  • National Hydro-meteorologcal Service
  • Vietnam Consult and Trading Company Ltd.
  • Ministry of Finance
  • Embassy of the Netherlands
  • Institute of Agricultural Environment
  • Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
  • SERVIR-Mekong
  • ...

Participants to the workshop

RIICE Vietnam presents three reports on rice monitoring from space, field work organization and project management. Followed the workshop program, several questions, comments and suggestions raised by the participants have notably acknowledged the advantage and reliability of remote sensing applications into large-scaled rice monitoring, by which RIICE team have been implementing over the last years.

The most emphasis comment is the continuation of the project and up-scaling on rice monitoring to meet the demands and requirements of different public/private bodies. Workshop participants also urgently request concerned organizations such as MARD, NSO, and some other private agencies to consider outputs of RIICE as an official source of information for decision making support.

The RIICE Phase II - scaling-up phase of RIICE has successfully implemented rice monitoring in 10 provinces in both Red River and Mekong River regions. This phase has also proved the capability of monitoring a large-scale rice coverage across the nation. In the next phase, extended coverage has been considered to add into routine work that will cover the whole two regions.

Some snapshots of workshop activities

Mr. Do Minh Phuong, RIICE Technician, presenting the results

Mr. Nguyen Hong Ninh (center), representative of SDC

Workshop participants

Dr. Pham Quang Ha's giving comments

RIICE Vietnam keeps on monitoring Spring season in the Red River delta until the end of June 2017. The end-season bulletin for Spring 2017 will soon be released on RIICE's website. The Summer season 2017 rice monitoring in both Red River and Mekong River deltas is on schedule of RIICE program's extension to the end of 2017.


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The close collaboration between Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) and the Vietnam Electricity (EVN) since November 2016 has enabled Spring season 2017 rice practice in the Red River delta to receive enough water for land preparation. Three water discharges have been set up on 10 Jan., 23 Jan. and 6 Feb. 2017, allowing farmers to start the season right on time. Beside the warm weather, the "Spring Embarkment" moment in lunar calendar falls after new lunar year, corresponding to mid-February 2017, are reasons for the Red River's farmers start their transplantation after a joyful new year celebration.

 RIICE technical team has set up field surveys in accordance with crop calendar by MARD and in consideration with water discharge periods for rice monitoring across the delta.
Fig. 1. Water discharge and RIICE survey dates
Field observations by RIICE technical team during surveys on 10 Mar., 27 Mar., 17 Apr. and 8 May 2017 have recorded cultivation progress by farmers that highly matches the MARD's crop calendar fixture. Up to mid-May 2015, a major area in the delta is after flowering stage, falling in to milking and maturity phases. The end of May and two first weeks of June 2017 will observe massive harvest all over the delta.

Fig. 2. A rice monitoring point in West Hanoi

Fig. 3. A rice monitoring point in Hai Phong province
Rice extent mapping, start of season date detection and yield forecast works have been conducted by RIICE team from NIAPP, in collaboration with IRRI, Sarmap and CTU to produce a set of geographical layers and statistical summarized tables. More details and information about Spring 2017 in the Red River delta can be accessed from the Rice Monitoring Bulletin No. 11.

Fig. 4. Rice extent map of the RRD, Spring 2017

Fig. 5. Start of Season dates for Spring 2017 in the Red River delta

Information reported in this bulletin has been generated using MAPscape-RICE, Oryza and data acquired by Sentinel-1A/1B (owned by EU and developed & operated by ESA). Background map ©OpenStreetMap contributors.

The end-season bulletin for rice monitoring in the Mekong delta can be accessed via following links:

English version              

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Intensive field observation by CTU team from 30 Dec. 2016 to 30 Apr. 2017 shows the progress of Summer season land preparation in Dong Thap, while in An Giang most of the rice field are in tillering stage. Up to mid-February 2017, all rice fields in Dong Thap had been transplanted.

Fig. 1. Winter-Spring 2017 rice cultivation in An Giang

Fig. 2. Winter-Spring 2017 rice cultivation in Dong Thap

The start of season in Dong Thap is closely following seasonal plan by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development while in An Giang, it has been later about one month. The major transplanting date in Dong Thap falls around October 2016, followed by An Giang one month later. Detailed mapping of start of season dates in these two provinces are made by RIICE using time-series data analysis with Sentinel-1A/B satellite imagery as below.
Fig. 3. Start of Season dates in An Giang and Dong Thap provinces
The mapping of rice extent for Winter-Spring 2017 is also implemented by RIICE which shows 128.400 ha for Dong Thap and 227.460 ha for An Giang. Results from yield estimation model for province, district and commune levels estimatedly forecasted 1.700.000 tons of rice for total product in the two provinces. Though aggregated yield in Dong Thap is about 9% less than last Winter-Spring season, there's a rise of 6% in An Giang eventually.
Fig. 4. Rice extent for Winter-Spring 2017 in An Giang and Dong Thap

Information reported in this bulletin has been generated using MAPscape-RICE, Oryza and data acquired by Sentinel-1A/1B (owned by EU and developed & operated by ESA). Background map ©OpenStreetMap contributors.

The end-season bulletin for rice monitoring in the Mekong delta can be accessed via following links:

English version              

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RIICE - March 2017. Moving forwards to the last period of Phase-2, the second meeting of RIICE project Steering Committee was organized by the Department of International Cooperation (ICD), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) on 7 March 2017.

The Steering Committee, including representatives from ICD, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC),   Swiss Re, Bao Viet Insurance,  GIZ, VinaRee, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and Center for Informatics and Statistics (CIS, MARD) reviewed the progress of project implementation during the period from September to December 2016.

Participants discussion during the meeting
The National Institute of Agricultural Planning and Projection (NIAPP) presented Project implementation report, financial report and technical report to the Committee, followed by the comments and discussions on upcoming activities to the end of the current phase.

Major achievements of the project's outputs and outcome includes:

  • On-time delivery of mid-season and end-season rice monitoring results;
  • Expanded connection with stakeholders and concerned users via workshops, bulletin delivery and project's website;
  • Positive feedbacks from users;
  • Leverage staff's technical capacity.
The Committee also made important remarks:
  • Approval of the auditing report by NEXIA auditing company;
  • Approval of the implementation report by the Committee;
  • Review of the next financial plan.

Rice monitoring in Vietnam at current phase has covered 10 provinces in both Red River and Mekong River deltas. At current stage, about one million hectares of rice extent has been frequently monitored, providing important information on rice crop area, start of the season, yield forecast and total product estimation.  Outputs of the monitor, at province, district and commune levels have been delivered twice per season, comprising mid- and end-season reports. In addition to rice monitoring bulletins, an online GIS database with rice map, phenological status monitoring, field survey photos and other useful information have been freely shared to the public via the project's website.


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The multicolored picture of the rice fields in An Giang and Dong Thap shows a wide variation in the start of the season dates (SoS) and also reflects technical challenges in monitoring rice production across the Mekong Delta.

The majority of early winter-spring rice in Dong Thap has been harvested (over 50% of the total area). On these fields, farmers have not yet done land preparation. Rice residuals have begun to regrow. Besides, the rest of the late winter-spring rice is in the ripening stage, preparing to harvest. In parallel with An Giang, a small area in Dong Thap is in the progress of tillering or booting.

Rice production status in Dong Thap, 28 February 2017
Source: RIICE Project
In An Giang, SoS variations remain smaller amplitudes. Most An Giang rice is at the end of the tillering, milking and maturity stages. A small area of An Giang is in the final stage of the maturity period, which is expected to be harvested in two weeks.

With sunny weather, regular irrigated condition, average water level in the field 3-10cm, the Winter-Spring 2017 season in An Giang and Dong Thap will give farmers a promising harvest.

Rice production status in An Giang, 28 February 2017
Source: RIICE Project
Field work has been conducted regularly on 25/9, 7/10, 19/10, 31/10, 12/11, 24/11, 6/12, 18/12, 30/12 2016; 11/1, 23/1, 4/2, 16/2 and 28/2 2017. Field survey records, combined with statistics from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and the General Statistics Office are important inputs that contribute to improving the accuracy of satellite image interpretation and rice yield forecast model.

According to Can Tho University's technical experts, about 50% of the project sites were planted with sticky rice (Thai sticky rice and CK variety). Therefore, Spring 2017 may likely be longer than normal due to the longer glutinous rice growing charecteristics. From the middle until the end of April 2017, all winter-spring rice in An Giang and Dong Thap provinces will be harvested.

RIICE has been carrying out end-of-season yield forecasts for Dong Thap, as well as making preparations for An Giang later. The results of the analysis on the Oryza yield model show a decrease of 5.6 quintals per hectare in yield of Dong Thap compared with the same period last year was.

Information reported in this bulletin has been generated using MAPscape-RICE, Oryza and data acquired by Sentinel-1A/1B (owned by EU and developed & operated by ESA). Background map ©OpenStreetMap contributors.

The end-season bulletin no 9 for rice monitoring in the Mekong delta can be accessed via following links:

English version              

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RIICE - March 2017. Hanoi 1st March 2017, RIICE Technical Workshop, hosted by the National Institute of Agricultural Planning and Projection (NIAPP) has successfully delivered an important message "The remote sensing-based information system managed by RIICE is capable of providing reliable rice crop information to agricultural managing bodies and crop insurance organizations in Vietnam". In a broader theme, rice crop practices can be monitored by remote sensing tools, which generate rice map, as well as provide early forecast of yield and production at high temporal frequency.

Attending the workshop are representatives from General Statistics Office (GSO), Bao Viet Insurance, General Department of State Reserves (GDSR), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Bao Viet Tokio Marine and Institute of Agricultural Environment.

Mr. Do Minh Phuong, project's technical leader from NIAPP gives an overview of remote sensing applications to crop monitoring, followed by routine works implemented by NIAPP over the first year of RIICE project in Vietnam. With supports from International Rice Research Institute and Sarmap, NIAPP is able to monitor rice production in 8 provinces of the Red River delta and two other in the Mekong River delta (An Giang and Dong Thap provinces). Significant achievements are highlighted, including rice extent mapping and early yield forecast for the monitoring region at commune level. Through the results of 12-month continuously monitoring by remote sensing data and tools, NIAPP and other partners have proved the high accuracy of information to be ready for crop insurance and agricultural crop management.

Participants have shown interests and intentions in taking project's outputs into decision-making process as mandate. A couple of opinions have emphasized on broader applications of rice monitoring information to national food reservation strategy planning, damage assessment, agricultural statistics works and climate change resilience.

RIICE project outputs are produced through collaborative work between the Vietnamese RIICE team, Sarmap, International Rice Research Institute, and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation. The Vietnamese RIICE team consists of the National Institute of Agricultural Planning and Projection and Can Tho University.


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A part of the Red River delta starts its Winter season with winter crops while the rest are leaving rice parcels uncultivated, waiting for Spring season next year.
Fig. 1. Winter crops in the Red River delta
Green: Summer rice
Purple: Winter crops
Source: RIICE Project

It has been observed by RIICE monitoring team during the field trip from 26-28 December 2016 that winter crops such as corn, vegetable, legumes and potatoes are major crops for winter season. Rice is not cultivated in this season.

Fig. 2. A field of peanut in Bac Ninh province

Fig. 3. Corn field in Hung Yen province

The uncultivated area of the delta is "waiting for the Spring season", said Mr. Long, a farmer met during the survey. As cultivation practices over generations, fields are ploughed and sun-dried for nutrition improvement and pest control, added Mr. Long.

Fig. 4. Land preparation 2 months before the next season

It is expected by the farmers in the delta that the Spring season will be started after the new lunar year, around February 2017. As the weather seems quite favourable this year, farmers are looking for a good season start in warm condition, leading to another successful harvest by the end.

The RRD Winter bulletin can be accessed via following links:

English version              

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Two rice crops, Autumn-Winter and Winter-Spring, on-going simultaneously in An Giang and Dong Thap have been observed through the monitoring with time-series satellite images from April 2016 to the present time.  It is shown that the period from the second quarter is the time for intensive rice cultivation in the Mekong delta. The Summer-Autumn, Autumn-Winter and Winter-Spring crops are continuously practiced over an area about 450,000 hectares of the two provinces, bringing 260,000 tonnes of grain per season.

Recurring 12 days, Sentinel-1A (October 2014) and Sentinel-1B (October 2016) satellites, passing through the area of the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, allow RIICE to continuously acquire data from outside the earth with a spatial resolution of 20m. From the 3rd week of October 2016, RIICE started receiving another data source - Sentinel-1B, increasing the frequency of data acquisition to 6 days for the Mekong River delta. The satellite images have been processed Sarmap’s MAPScape remote sensing software, enabling RIICE to timely capture the progress of planting and growing in the whole region.

Unlike the Red River delta, favoured by good weather conditions, time of sowing in the Mekong Delta spread almost throughout the year. However, for the Summer-Autumn crop, in the two provinces of An Giang and Dong Thap, a large area of rice is transplanted in the early months of April 2016 to the end of May 2016. The early Summer-Autumn rice area will reap 1-1.5 months earlier than late Summer-Autumn fields. Continue to the Summer-Autumn crop, farmers in two provinces of the Mekong Delta are sowing Autumn-Winter crop. In An Giang, Autumn-Winter season begins in mid-August 2016, 1.5 months later than Dong Thap. Meanwhile, rice crop in Dong Thap is at tillering stage in 2016-2017 Winter-Spring season, of the other part, a large area of An Giang in maturity condition, heading towards Autumn-Winter 2016 harvest.
Up to this moment, An Giang has fulfilled 60% of total rice area harvested for Autumn-Winter season. Meanwhile, Dong Thap’s 55% rice fields are in end-tillering stage. RIICE keeps on acquiring Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-1B satellite imagery for Winter-Spring monitoring. Reports on rice cultivation in An Giang and Dong Thap in Winter-Spring season will be released in the next Bulletins.

Information reported in this bulletin has been generated using MAPscape-RICE, Oryza and data acquired by Sentinel-1A/1B (owned by EU and developed & operated by ESA). Background map ©OpenStreetMap contributors.

The end-season bulletin for rice monitoring in the Mekong delta can be accessed via following links:

English version              

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The CIS Reports are monthly reports compiled by Center for Informatics and Statistics of MARD. These reports present general progress of agricultural production over the country. Statistical data from the reports are aggregated to provincial level.

CIS Reports are posted in Acrobat PDF format and free to download. Please note that all reports and tables are in Vietnamese language.





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RIICE - Nov 2016. As a part of project's activities, RIICE's stakeholder workshop is recently organized in Can Tho city on 16 November 2016. The workshop, co-sponsored by NIAPP and CTU, taking place at Department of Land Resources, College of Environment and Natural Resources, Can Tho University, receives representatives from various organizations, including Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), National Institute of Agricultural Planning and Projection (NIAPP), Departments of Agriculture and Rural Development of Hau Giang, Can Tho, An Giang, Soc Trang and Long An provinces, provincial Department of Crop Production, Department of Plant Protection, Statistics Office of Can Tho, Bao Minh Insurance company in An Giang, and Dai Doan Ket newspaper.

Prof. Vo Quang Minh, CTU, addresses the objectives of the workshop

The workshop focuses on three main objectives:
  • Provide local participants with the main contents of RIICE project and its initial results after 1 year of operation in Viet Nam.
  • Obtain reactions from local participants on the rice production in the Mekong River Delta in terms of production (area, yield and productivity), natural disaster, climate change, insurance, etc.
  • Envision and prepare necessary activities for the RIICE’s extension and RIICE’s new stage during 2018 – 2019.
During the workshop, presentations on remote sensing applications for rice monitoring, crop management with statistical works and field surveys, farmers and the crop insurance issues and key requirements for crop monitoring, etc., have been discussed. 

Mr. Nguyen Phuoc Thanh, Department of Crop Production of An Giang
presents rice crop monitoring work in An Giang province
Following points have been discussed among the participants:
  • Remote sensing-based crop information system has become one of the important tools for crop monitoring, which is possible to provide timely data for various managing organizations;
  • Remote sensing techniques provide useful and timely information and should be broadly applied under MARD;
  • Assessment of disaster impacts on rice production using remote sensing tools need to be boosted up.
  • Capacity building activities are required for local users to successfully utilize;
  • It is important to feed RIICE's outputs into other common databases of the government.
Participants also discuss on how to increase accuracy and integration of remote sensing tools and outputs into routine works operated by local authorities. The Statistical Office of Can Tho, represented by Mr. Tran Van Dzung also stated the needs of incorporating remote sensing tools into day-to-day works of relevant government authorities such as provincial DARDs, agriculture extension services, plant protection, statistical offices, etc.

With financial supports from SDC, RIICE Vietnam has been successfully implemented since the beginning of 2016. In collaboration with NIAPP and CTU, RIICE has received technical supports from IRRI and Sarmap, as well as fruitful guidelines from MARD, GIZ and Allianz-III.

Mr. Nguyen Hong Ninh, representative from SDC, emphasizing the key points
of remote sensing applications to crop insurance


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The summer season in the Red River Delta has successfully gone by thanks to great efforts of hard working farmers and local authorities.

Copping with unpredictable stormy season, farmers in the Red River delta provinces have quickly mobilized resources to finish the season 2016 harvest, minimizing damage and losses caused by rain and whirlwinds to agricultural product, and ensuring post-harvest quality. The summer season of 2016 in the Red River Delta is to evaluated successful,  despite the reduction of 70,000 tonnes in comparison with last year's summer season (MARD, 2016).

Crop growth status and flooding affected by rainstorms were recorded from Sentinel-1A satellite radar with a frequency of 12 days. During a crop season, there are 12-14 satellite images being used, enabling RIICE to monitor sowing date in different areas of the Red River delta, while observing water levels flooded whenever there is a storm passes through. These surveillance data, combined with field information allow RIICE to make accurate judgments and timely seasonal movements and the ability to estimate losses caused by natural disasters.
The summer 2016 season, rice extent in 8 provinces of the Red River delta reached 445,000 hectares. This result was made on 09.18.2016, about two weeks before the harvest time. Compared with mainstream statistical data collected after the season end, RIICE can issue data on the cultivated area as well as sowing date mapping of 1.5 months earlier. These results allow management agencies to propose appropriate managerial plan, at the same time, in terms of food security, rice procurement plans can be early implemented.

The end-season bulletin for rice monitoring in the Red River delta can be accessed via following links:

English version              

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For ones who have driven through Vietnam's country side, any single moment behind the wheel could remain long after in memory.

Unique scenes, friendly people, exrta-ordinary landscapes and series of living activities have taken visitors out of the blue, leading them unintentionally to saving precious moments into flashcards.

August, the month of colorful fields from flat deltas to highland villages. One could easily find green fields vastly running towards the skyline in the delta of Red River or shaping like an elevator from the highland terraces. From simple daily clothes of lowland farmers to flowerish ethnic costumes on highland lads, not only foreigners feeling surprised, but also local chaps outbusting astonished.

Here under are some snapshots of Vietnam's country side. This album comprises of two parts: (i) The living in lowlands, and (ii) Higland's terraces.

The living in lowlands

Friends of farmers

A farmer's lift-net fishing after the rain

The image of Vietnam's rural always goes along with this animal

Cone hats are the most popular signature of Vietnam's rural 

Field-side rice threshing work 
"Duck cottage", where a farmer's household raising ducks

Papaya fruits symbolize "prosperty"

When the Internet comes to the village 

Mid-Autumn fruits

"Jacks in the country side" - a jackfruit tree

Young and energetic

Simply beaming

Mid-harvest chat

Higland's terraces

Hillside village

A peaceful moment

Sunset in a small village

Vietnamese silk ensemble and the turban

Playin' with rice

Twin mountains

The green valley

Waiting for the harvest...

The other side of the shadow

Where time stays still

Steps to heaven

Path to my village

A hideaway


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